of "Aqeedahtu Tahawiyah" 1-2
If you read the biographies of the
previous Ulama and famous students of knowledge you always find that
they studied such and such book with this scholar and such and such
book with that scholar. So there were two things worthy of mention in
their method of learning:
Why is studying one book at a time an advanced method and why is it important? It is common for a teacher to teach Aqeedah and for the student to comprehend it easily. However, it is just as common to find that when the student opens or reads books of previous scholars and are baffled by what the book is saying as if the student has never learned Aqeedah at all. Therefore, by sticking to a book at a time this confusion is eliminated and the student learns through the methods of scholars.
By pursuing this book cover to cover, you will nearly cover all aspects your need to know of Aqeedah. And, Allah knows best.
Kinds of Knowledge:
Following the knowledge of Allah, his names and attributes, and actions are two additional types of knowledge; Fiqh al Asghar and Shoon Alma3ad.
2. Fiqh al Asghar:
3. Shoon alma3ad:
All these 3 are clear in the Qur'an and Sunnah . Ibn al Qayyim (rahimahu Allah) said in Kafiyat Shafieh, "Knowledge is 3 and has no fourth."
The Importance of the Categories
And that is why it is from the mercy of Allah that He did not make us resort to our minds. He sent the messengers and books to teach us and tell us about Allah , thus guiding us to the good and prohibiting us from the bad.
"Mankind were one community and Allâh sent Prophets with glad tidings and warnings, and with them He sent the Scripture in truth to judge between people in matters wherein they differed. And only those to whom (the Scripture) was given differed concerning it after clear proofs had come unto them through hatred, one to another. Then Allâh by His Leave guided those who believed to the truth of that wherein they differed. And Allâh guides whom He wills to a Straight Path." (Al-Baqarah 2:213)
3. Realizing that the purpose
of these types of knowledge is to follow them by action.
After the prophets are the Sadiqoon, the first one being Abu Bakr (radhi Allahu anhu). After the Sadiqoon, there are the Martyrs who gave their souls for the sake of Allah.
The Study of Aqeedah
The Importance of Aqeedah
1- Aqeedah is the source and core of this religion.
2- It is the meaning of la ilaha illah Allah.
3- The first pillar of Islam
Knowing and having the true Aqeedah is important because if the basis of understanding Allah's religion is correct, the religion is accepted. Its opposite then follows. If one builds his aqeedah on a shaky or on wrong foundation, the entire entity will be weak and will not be accepted by Allah. This is precisely why scholars of prior times put extreme emphasis on this matter.
A Brief History of the Study
The same was the situation surrounding their students, the tabi'een who learned from them, the Sahabah . There was no give and take in matters of Aqeedah since it was clear from the pure sources.
However, sects and disputes developed within the ummah when some whose Aqeedah was not firm in their hearts, who had deviant teachings, or who did not refer to Qur'an and Sunnah entered this religion.
At that point it became necessary for the Imam s of Islam to show the correct Aqeedah , write it and outline it. This is the origin of the books of Aqeedah . Scholars gave this matter much needed importance and emphasis. These books became references for those who come after them from the ummah until the Day of Judgment.
This is how Allah protected this religion, Allah sent to the ummah scholars who defended this Aqeedah refuting the deviance of deviant sects, a methodology to be inherited generation after generation.
Among them were the likes of the four Imam s; Imam Ahmad, Abu Hanifah, Imam Shafi'ee and Imam Malik. Likewise, there were those like Ibn al Mubarak, Ibn Rahawieh, and others who presented themselves to defend this Aqeedah and teaching it to the students.
The followers of the Imam s also paid close attention to this Aqeedah , studied and memorized it. They wrote plenty of original books and descriptions to previous Aqeedah books to show the path of the Qur'an and Sunnah. They refuted the deviant beliefs in the process. These are the scholars like Ishaq bin Rahwieh, Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim, Bin Khuzaymah, Ibn Kutaibah. Among the tafseer scholars, there were Al-Tabari, Ibn Katheer, Baghawy, and others.
They wrote many books on Aqeedah
People came at a later time who tampered with matters of Aqeedah and declared that Allah cannot come down in the one third end of the night, or cannot be on top of seven skies.
The first one who declared a denial of Allah's attributes is Ja3d bin Dirham, he lived in the time of tab3een around the beginning of the 2nd century. He denied that Allah talked to Prophet Musa (alayhi salam). Thus, Khalid al Kusaray, the ameer of his town, killed him by a fatwa from the scholars of that time. He gave an eid khutbah and brought this man Ja3d chained. After the eid Khutbah, he told the people "Go sacrifice. You sacrifice, and I will sacrifice Ja3ed because he denies that Allah talked to Musa when Allah said: "Allah spoke directly unto Moses" 4:164
Some were affected by Ja3d bin Dirham. Among them is a man named Jahm bin safwan, who spread his belief and debated for it. He was later killed by the Ameer of khurasan.
The madhab of ta3teel was attributed to him. They were called Jahmiyyah. Jahm took from Ja3d before Ja3d died. Ja3d took from Aban bin Sam3an. Aban took from Taloot. Taloot took from Labeed bin Asam, the Jew who performed sorcery on the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam). Thus, the origin of tampering with attributes of Allah is of Jewish origins.
After many decades a man named Ahmad ibn Abi Du'ad, known to be a proponent for the Jahmiyyah, converted the 'Abbasid khalifah Ma'moon to this falsehood. Just within two hundred years after the hijrah, this Ma'moon began a ruthless persecution of the scholars of his time. He forced many of them to denounce the belief in the correct Aqeedah from the salaf. All were ordered to publicly denounce and those who resisted were tortured. One of those tortured was Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal. He was persecuted, jailed and tortured near death. It was one of the greatest trials of the Ummah which ended during the Khalifah of Mutawakkil.
Thereafter came the Mutakalimeen. They tried to combine between the mental acceptance and shari'ah. They were otherwise referred to by scholars as munafiqoon, hypocrites. The reason they are called munafiqoon is because a munafiq is one who wants to subject the commandments of Islam to his mental capabilities. By the same token, these mutakalimeen (proponents of philosophy) also claim they want combine philosophy and sharee3ah.
About them, Allah (azza wajal) said:
Abu Yusuf said "Whoever seeks
Islam through mental rationalizing ends up a zindeeq." (A
"Zindeeq " or the "Zandiqah " are similar to the
hypocrites (Munaafiqeen) in that they show Islam on their outside while
having disbelief (Kufr) upon their inside. The difference is that the
Zindeeq will occasionally demonstrate actions or statements of disbelief
but when he is approached, he denies that he has disbelieved and claims
that he is upon Islam.
Author of Aqeedahtu-Tahawiyah:
Both the author of this book as well as the best describer of this work were Hanafi Scholars.
The scholars of Aqeedah gave this book special attention. Generation after generation they paid close attention to learning and teaching this book until it became one of the best references of Aqeedah .
As Imam Tahawi stated, he wrote it according to Ahlus Sunnah according to the Hanafi madhab, and from the first of the Imams, Imam Abu Hanifah, who met the tabi'een and learned from them.
The Aqeedah of Abu Hanifah is the same as that of his two friends Abu Yusuf, and Muhammad Alshaibany and the big scholars of Hanafi madhab in previous times. Their Aqeedah was in fact the Aqeedah of the Sahabah , which remains to be a blow to some present day Hanafis who take his Fiqh yet leave his Aqeedah, in the same manner that followers of other madhabs do. It is only correct to state that if the present day followers of a madhab were true followers of their original scholars then they should also follow them in the principles of Aqeedah.
Tawheed literally means one. In a shari'ah definition it means having one lord in your 3ibadah and leaving the worship of anyone or anything other than Him. Allah creates and no one other than him creates. He is the planner of the universe. He is the only one who brings life and death.
There are three categories of tawheed. These are based on the salaf's strenuous efforts of studying the Qur'an and Sunnah which lead them to 3 categories of tawheed. You must perfect all these three categories of tawheed.
Tawheed Al ruboobiyyah (lordship)
Most of the universe by fitrah agree
to this even the mushrikoon, yet its not enough.
Even though it is by fitrah, some
groups denied this. Their fitrah became tainted. And went against the
great vast majority of the world who believe in Allah.
Among this category are like atheists or communist who say: "There is no god and life is materialistic."
Ibn al Qayyim said these are two
2. Another groups is (tabae3yoon)
3. Another group went against
fitrah by saying that life was created by coincidence.
Reply to these types of disbelievers
Abu Hanifah said before the debate (interpretation the dialogue), "I want to tell you about a story. " They said, "What??" He said, "A ship in dijlah river came to shore with no captain and carried the equipment from the first shore and took it by itself to the other shore days and days away then it took its merchandise off with no captain." They said, "It is impossible, no one can believe this. A ship with no captain cannot do all that. No way." Abu Hanifah said, "If that's impossible in one ship how can u say this about the universe runs without a sustainer - Allah?" They were stunned and the debate ended before it started.
Some did not disbeelive in
this tawheed but did shirk in it.
2. The Christians -- They believe
Allah is three.
3. Altharieh -- The ones who think the sun and moon and stars have an effect in some things.
4. Alqadariyyah-- That humans create good and bad so he can deserve the reward for good he does and punishment he does. In order for him to be punished he must have created his own actions.
5. Mushrikeen -- Some polytheists claim their lords can bring good and bad. Like the soul of one who died can bring good or bad or respond in itself.
Even though in these categories
they may not believe them to be equal to Allah- they are still considered
mushrikeen as they associate partners with Allah.
Look at the kings in this world
they cannot get along, not even that, look at two leaders of a corruption.
Thus, it makes it ridiculous to believe there is more than one Allah,
the Omniponent. If there was more than one God, three things would happen:
Tawheed Ulohiyyah (one in worship)
This is where most people in the
world have gone astray. While the kuffar believe that there is Allah,
they do not believe He is the one worthy of worship alone.
The Prophet (sallallahu alalyhi
wa sallam) remained 13 years giving dawah about this. Nooh 950 years
calling to tawheed. All they did was mock him. In fact the grandparents
used to tell their grandchildren to disbelieve in Nooh.
Those who deny this tawheed, ALMUATILAH, comes in 3 groups
1. The likes of the Quraysh who
denied the name of Allah - ArRahman
2. The Jahmiyyah, the first who corrupted this area by denying sama3, basar, 3lm, and the names. The Jahmiyyah in general denied all of the names and attributes of Allah. Consequently this lead them to believe that we will not see Allah in the life after, that Alla is not above His Throne, that Allah does not have the attribute of kalam (speech), the attributes of yadd ('Hand') and wajh ('face'), etc.. In Kitab AlSunnah by AlKhallal there's a narration of Imam Ahmad stating that the Jahmiyyah are all disbelievers. "They should be forced to repent, and if they do not do so, then they should be killed!"
Both groups are kuffar. Ibn al Qayyim said 500 scholars declared they are kuffar. Ibn Taymiyyah, in his books, narrated the quotes of scholars saying they are kafir. Ibn al Mubarak said we can quote Jews and Christians, BUT not the Jahmiyyah. Some scholars said there is a difference between their belief and the ignorant people.
We reply to this by saying: Denying the attributes of Allah for that reason precludes to denying the names of Allah as well, and the result is the same.
"Naught is as His likeness;
and He is the Hearer, the Seer." 42:11
There is none close or similar to Allah. We therefore believe in that which Allah attributes to Himself. It necessitates that we likewise believe in what his messenger attributed to him. We do not compare (tashbeeh) it to any of his creations, nor say its like any of his creations (Tamtheel).
It is essential to comprehend the names and attributes of Allah in full meaning. Although we may claim there is nothing like Allah, we must be aware of what brings people astray falsely denying His attributes. Deviant sects went astray by claiming if we give him these attributes then He is like His creations. However, they fail to realize that when it is firm in your belief that there is none like Allah because Allah describes Himself as such, then that area of doubt in believing in the attributes of Allah becomes clear.
This is a reply to those who are (mushabiha) who claim Allah is like his creations, who do not distinguish between the creator and his creation. On the otherhand, there are those (mu3atilah) who went to an extreme. Though they declare that Allah is not like His creation, they likewise deny Allah's attributes or even his names in an effort to stay away from imitating Allah to His creations.
Both (mu3atilah) and (Mushabiha) went to two radical extremes. Mu3atilah went to an extreme trying to stay away from imitating Allah to his creations and Mushabiha went to an extreme in approving the attributes.
Ahlus Sunnah came in the middle saying we believe what Allah attributes to himself in a way that best suits Him with no comparison or imitation to his creation, nor with denial of those attributes.
A reply to those who imitate allah to his creations (tashbeeh): "Naught is as His likeness;." 42:11
A reply for those who deny his attributes: "and He is the Hearer, the Seer"
Last updated: January 20, 2003
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